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development of writing in mesopotamia class 11

日期:2020-12-13 来源: 浏览:0

Hundreds of cuneiform symbols were used to represent words and syllables. Distribute the Timeline: Mesopotamia 4000-1000 BCE activity which is available as a PDF for this lesson, or you can do this as an online activity. At first, the symbols and signs were pictographs, or drawings of objects. Emergence of civilizations F 2007 / Owen: Mesopotamia: Jemdet Nasr, writing p. 2 − some people believe that information that is seen is processed differently from information that is heard − implies formal training and specialists − many definitions of civilization include writing as an important characteristic of … The system was developed so that information could be recorded. NCSS.D2.His.1.6-8. THE ORIGINS OF WRITING: Tokens are small geometric clay objects (cylinders, cones, spheres, etc.) Ask each group to contribute one job to a running list that will be written on the board. The Sumerians used a wedged-shaped stylus to etch their writing in clay tables. For example, authorities expecting to take a portion of the revenue from taxes might be interested in having a record of the financial transactions which took place. The development of complex societies, with social hierarchies, private property, economies that supported tax-funded authorities, and trade, all combined to create a need for written records. You may wish to sketch barley on the board, or show a photograph of barley, such as this photograph. Today, we call it cuneiform, from the Latin for cuneus, which means ''wedge'' and signifying the wedge-like shape of the writing you can see here. Eventually, writing became phonetic as well as representational. This first activity will introduce students to the part of the world where writing first developed- the area once called Mesopotamia, which was located in what is today the country of Iraq. What kinds of thoughts, ideas, actions, or things were easiest to put into pictures? Have students create a few of them and draw them on the board. For example, they might think of deciding to make lists of the cards by category. Originally Mesopotamia is a Greek word which means the land between two rivers. Next, divide the class into small groups of two or three and assign each group of students an artifact from ancient Mesopotamia from the list below. Why did vibrant trade develop in the larger region shown on the map? Explain points of agreement experts have about interpretations and applications of disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a compelling question. They know the English language, but they know little else about America in the 21st century. Then use the Geography: Explore feature to investigate a variety of maps of the region by choosing them from the pull down menu. Divide the class into small groups of three or four and assign each group one of the labels. Students should note here the progression from representational picture, to symbol, to phonetic representation. Causes & Effects of the Vietnam War: Assignment 1 - President Johnson & Guerilla Warfare, Study.com's Workforce College Accelerator, Learning Activities for Children with Down Syndrome, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, A change in the environment that allowed people to settle, The creation of cities, which brought about more complex societies, The economic need to keep track and records of the exchange of goods. Which do students hypothesize would appear earlier/later on the timeline? Have the class brainstorm: What would be some of the most essential things for which you would need signs? Divide the class into small groups and have each group work together to create a list of jobs they believe might have existed in ancient Mesopotamia. until the development of writing. You may wish to use this lesson independently as an introduction to Mesopotamian civilization, or as an entry point into the study of Sumerian and Babylonian history and culture. Could a country be ruled, an army trained, a religion organized, laws maintained, buildings built, products marketed, crops raised and sold without writing? What clues can we get from the geography of the region to explain why Mesopotamia became the “Cradle of Civilization”? Can a pictograph convey what the word it is depicting sounds like? In addition to the historical basis for these activities, this lesson is also about the nature of written language, how it evolves and how it serves civilization. Why do people make and keep receipts? Writing developed as well, becoming essential to those systems. Furthermore, cuneiform was used to communicate and formalize legal systems, most famously Hammurabi’s Code. Download photographs of artifacts students will be viewing offline. What kinds of tasks cannot be accomplished without writing? Hieroglyphics was invented in Ancient Egypt about the same time as cuneiform in Mesopotamia, but scientists believe that cuneiform came first. By investigating this tablet, we learn that: By investigating the tablet students may also note additional characteristics about the civilization which produced it. As a class, look through the labels. I gave my class an outline of the ideas which related to the revenge which Ishtar took upon the heros. How would writing have been useful for record keeping, legal matters, passing on history and stories to future generations and other activities represented in the artifacts students analyzed? Sheep and goats were raised (“One sheep, Ur-Shara,” “one goat”). It's something that is part and parcel of life. Ancient Mesopotamian farmers cultivated wheat, barley, cucumbers, and … Note that the timeline covers an extended period, not all of which will be covered in detail in this lesson. There was at least one forest in the area (“individual sheep from the Forest of the Great Canal” and the job of “forester” existed), At the time the tablet was written, canals had been built (The name “Great Canal” implies the existence of at least one lesser canal.). Challenge students to put together a simple narrative of developments in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley based on the events in the timeline. and Social Classes 11. Did writing enable those complex systems to arise or did complex systems create the need for a more sophisticated system of writing? As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Some of the symbols ancient Mesopotamians used were ideograms, or symbols that represented associated meanings. The first Mesopotamian written representation of barley was a picture. Mathematics also flourished and developed in ancient Mesopotamia. This lesson plan, intended for use in the teaching of world history in the middle grades, is designed to help students appreciate the parallel development and increasing complexity of writing and civilization in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in ancient Mesopotamia. You may wish to consult the following EDSITEment lessons on ancient writing systems, designed for younger students, which contain elements that could be adapted for middle school: View the modern political map of the area with the class. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Which occupations do they think were the most common? Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. What picture of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia arises from the combined hypotheses of the groups? How did the change from pictures (direct representation) to cuneiform (abstract representation) affect who could use the system? Name its capital also. Students may note that even those without specialized knowledge could potentially understand it. In order to ensure the crop yield, a system of canals was dug to divert water for agriculture and lessen the impact of annual floods. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you For larger classes you may wish to divide the class into small groups and have each group work on answering one of the following questions, which they should share with the rest of the class. Report ; Posted by Shreyansh Shekhar 2 months, 3 weeks ago. What are the elements of our word for barley -- how do we know that the symbols which make up the word represent the grain? © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Students will also begin to think about the relationship between the evolution of civilization in Mesopotamia and how writing enhanced its development. Job Specialization. Do students think that the appearance of these occupations might have affected the development of writing? Quiz & Worksheet - Mesopotamian Written Language, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Bronze Age Greece: Schliemann's Quest for Troy, Iron Age Empires: Neo-Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires, The Bronze Age Collapse: History & Concept, Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt: Similarities & Differences, Mesopotamian Animals: Wild & Domesticated, The Phrygian Kingdom: Definition, Geography & History. Which was the ancient town of Mesopotamia? In its earliest form, commercial transactions were represented by tokens. Next view the Ancient Cities map together. For example, people in Mesopotamia, in particular the region of Sumer, developed ways to Cuneiform was used to record literature such as the Epic of Gilgamesh—the oldest epic still known. The above video is an excerpt from the film The Cyrus Cylinder and provides an overview of the origins of cuneiform. D2.Geo.7.6-8. In the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, the Sumerians developed a written language. This was made possible perhaps as a result of numerous factors: But the ancient Mesopotamians didn't create writing out of nowhere. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. How did that happen? With this stability farmers in the region were able to domesticate animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} A pictograph, a pictorial representation of barley—presumably like the one you’ve drawn on the board -- is one of the signs we find on the oldest examples of writing from the region. This activity will give students who have not had readings about the history of the Middle East, and specifically about Mesopotamia, the opportunity to gain some contextual understanding of the development of cuneiform writing. As a result, many cuneiform inscriptions remain undeciphered to this day. When is it used in addition to other forms of communication-like speaking? The signs changed over many years, and this is the story of what happened to just one of the signs. Review all websites and materials students will view. Present them to the students in random order. Students can explore the intersection of the sciences and ancient history in the, This lesson has centered on cuneiform writing and its evolution. Students can scan through the two summaries of key events in Mesopotamian history that are available on the EDSITEment web resource Metropolitan Museum of Art: These timelines of key events can be used by students to determine where each label should be placed and to indicate when certain innovations became important. The evolution of writing occurred in stages. But a long time ago, this wasn't the case. What elements in the terrain also enabled Mesopotamia to develop trade (pay particular attention to the rivers, relatively flat terrain)? For example, the presence of an established calendar indicates the existence of a fairly sophisticated number system and understanding of astronomy. Once he had translated the Persian, he was able to use the Persian as a key to decipher the cuneiform. For additional detailed information on the development of writing in Mesopotamia, read the. The priests of ancient Mesopotamia were part of the ruling class, and much of the tax money that was collected went to the priests and the temples. Biological and Biomedical Each page contains information on the history and development of the cuneiform character for the word "barley" over time. Cuneiform writing was around for thousands of years until it was replaced by the Phoenician alphabet near the end of the neo-Assyrian Empire. How did the development of agriculture allow people to support themselves? Did writing change the way they approached the task? One is in Persian (the language that is still used in Iran today) and another is Assyrian cuneiform from Mesopotamia. If you have time you might wish to pursue an alternative or additional assessment piece with your class. Evaluate the extent to which the development of systems of writing and the development of civilization are linked. All of the pages online offer the opportunity to click for additional views of the artifact (usually a larger view) and/or information. Analyze the purposes writing served in Mesopotamia with an emphasis on how those purposes evolved as the civilization changed. Wikimedia Commons. Instead, the earliest known writing documented simple commercial transactions. In this activity students will be challenged to make hypotheses about civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. For students who have had the opportunity to learn about Mesopotamia this exercise will remind them of some of the major events in the history of the area. Cuneiform writing was understood before we knew much about civilization in Ancient Mesopotamia. Students should note that pictographic images have a limited ability to communicate such things as abstractions, sounds and certain parts of speech. Ancient Mesopotamia and the Hebrew Bible. This book presents current perspectives on the origins and development of writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, providing an overview of each writing system and its uses. When students have completed the answers to the treasure hunt have the class discuss the answers to each of the questions, which are available in the teacher’s rubric. Writing. Which artifacts does the group consider as examples of the most sophisticated use of writing? It probably came into existence around 3100 BCE and developed over hundreds of years from symbols on clay tokens, to pictographs (drawings of objects), and ideograms (symbols) on clay tablets. Writing was long thought to have been invented in a single civilization, a theory named "monogenesis". NCSS.D2.His.2.6-8. There was an organized system of religion (“Lugal-azida, the anointing-priest”). Gradually, civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley became more urbanized. NCSS.D2.His.3.6-8. Tokens were stored as a record of transactions. For example, ancient Mesopotamia is the place where the concept of value and the zero were invented. the Sumerians created a written language called cuneiform.This name comes from the Latin word for “wedge”. What kinds of documents would have been developed later? Through this process writing was becoming disentangled from direct depiction. Ask students to think about the following questions: Discuss the occupations which would have required record keeping briefly. Site Navigation. What are some jobs students wouldn’t expect to be on the list, such as factory worker? How? Why? Why do the students think that the ancient Mesopotamians decided to change the writing system from just pictures (pictographs) to the cuneiform shapes? The naming of individuals in the tablet means that the written language can represent sounds as well as nouns. Let's go over the ancient Mesopotamian writing system and how it even came into existence in the first place. 3. Nowadays, the fact that you can read and write is taken for granted. This is not to say the people of ancient Mesopotamia engaged in the same sort of scientific inquiry, in the same way, one would in the present day, and those who object to the use of the word 'science' or the term 'scientific method' regarding Mesopotamia have a valid point. Barley was a very important crop in ancient Mesopotamia. succeed. You may have already heard of it. In fact, one symbol could represent everything from a sound or syllable to a concept or object. NCSS.D1.2.6-8. Which objects, concepts and ideas are the ones you would make sure were standardized and learned right away? People kept records before the invention of writing. What developments in the civilization would have been facilitated by or even require a system of writing? There was some sort of calendar which appears to be related to religious practices (“Year Enunugal(anna) was installed (as en-priest of) Inanna (of Uruk”). Human occupation of Mesopotamia—“the land between the rivers” (i.e., the Tigris and Euphrates)—seems to reach back farthest in time in the north , where the earliest settlers built their small villages some time around 6000 bce. Mesopotamia is the modern Iraq. 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Donate or volunteer today! What other records might have been useful for authorities to keep? If there were no written records connected to these occupations how would that have affected the occupation? The earliest known civilization developed along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now the country of Iraq. Science and Technology in Mesopotamia (Mathematics, Astronomy and Astrology, and Medicine) 2 min read Mesopotamians are probably best known for invention of writing but their achievements in science and technology correspond to the level of socioeconomic development and are comparable with achievements of modern society. The development of stable agriculture through irrigation meant people no longer had to follow changing sources of food. Did you know… We have over 220 college Ask the students the purposes of writing in the world today. Then, each group will present its hypotheses about what the object can tell us today about life in ancient Mesopotamia. Only the drawing of simple pictures remained as the means of written communication. Already registered? Explain your answers. Services. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | So what was the ancient Mesopotamian writing system? As societies became, first, more settled as farmers, and then in certain places more urbanized as some populations became townsfolk, what kinds of new tasks and jobs would need to be done? The earliest cities known today arose in Mesopotamia, an area that is part of what is sometimes called the Fertile Crescent. Some would place sticks into the ground to count things like the number of sheep someone owned. How is it used? Why? Download and prepare as necessary handouts from the downloadable PDF for this lesson. Distribute the Timeline Labels handout, which is available as a PDF for this lesson. The National Geographic. Tigris and Euphrates were the two rivers between which the civilization of Mesopotamia flourished. Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Writing and City Life. Review of the story: Humbaba was the guardian of the wild cows and the cedar forest. Have students write an explanation for why they placed the examples in the order they chose. Advantages of Self-Paced Distance Learning, Advantages of Distance Learning Compared to Face-to-Face Learning, Top 50 K-12 School Districts for Teachers in Georgia, Those Winter Sundays: Theme, Tone & Imagery. Who do you think would want the have a record of the buying and selling of barley? Scholars believed that all writing originated in ancient Sumer (in Mesopotamia) and spread over the world from there via a process of cultural diffusion. How did the cuneiform writing system affect Mesopotamian civilization? What two rivers bordered Mesopotamia? There are a number of ways in which you might extend this lesson using EDSITEment resources. It will be helpful for students to return to the timelines they created in the second activity as a reference point while completing this exercise. 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You can test out of the Deaths? Anyone can earn You may wish to begin by working through the model below. Today, we call their writing system cuneiform, from the Latin cuneus, which means ''wedge,'' signifying the wedge-like shape of the writing. Over time, the pictographs transformed into an early version of cuneiform around 2400 BCE. Discuss examples of messages relatively easy to communicate with pictographs and others that would be more difficult. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Writing, the ability to make language visible and permanent, is one of humanities' greatest inventions. Instead, the numeral for four was written beside one sheep pictograph. What kinds of things did they believe were the most necessary to keep a record of? The development of successful agriculture, which relied on the region’s fertile soils and an irrigation system that took advantage of its consistent water supply, led to the development of the world’s first cities. Egyptian Symbols and Figures: Hieroglyphs, British Museum’s introduction to Mesopotamia: Geography, The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago, Administrative tablet with cylinder seal impression of a male figure, hunting dogs, and boars, Cuneiform Voucher for Rations at a Way Station, Record of Delivery and Expenditure of Cattle, Image of Tablet with Babylonian Flood Myth, Using Chemistry to Learn the Provenance of Clay Tablets, Puzzle Challenge: Putting Artifacts Back Together, Cuneiform Prism with the Sumerian King List. Mesopotamian Writing: The first Mesopotamian tablets, written around 3200 BCE, contained picture-like signs and numbers. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. You can download a list of some occupations which were part of life in ancient Mesopotamia. This may help them to think about why people wanted to keep track of the buying and selling of barley. Why do you think the first records recorded the sale of grains and livestock? In ancient Mesopotamia, the state was primarily an instrument to perpetuate the domination of class which appropriated a disproportionately large share of the surplus. You may wish to have them work together in small groups. Wouldn't it be nice if life were that easy today? Identify specific artifacts that demonstrate how the writing system in Mesopotamia was transformed. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant. The pictographic symbols were refined into the writing system known as cuneiform. You may wish to remind students that these records were similar to receipts. Land sales? Detailed map of ancient Mesopotamia. Once the writing system had moved from being pictographic to phonetic writing could communicate abstractions more effectively: names, words, and ideas. In this activity students will begin to think about the development and urbanization of Mesopotamian civilization by thinking about the kinds of occupations that developed over time. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE. This is the currently selected item. Fleece was taken from sheep and presumably used (“fleece plucked”). Map of the Assyrian Empire #4 The influential cuneiform script was invented in Mesopotamia. Having a written record of those transactions would make the collection of taxes both more exact and more efficient. Cuneiform came to function both phonetically (representing a sound) and semantically (representing a meaning such as an object or concept) rather than only representing objects directly as a picture. The Mesopotamians believed the gods had created order out of chaos and had then created human beings as their co-workers to maintain that order. The increasingly sophisticated system of writing that developed also helped the civilization develop further, facilitating the management of complex commercial, religious, political, and military systems. Just learn to read and write and you'll be golden! Some of the jobs in ancient Mesopotamia included farming, pottery, weaving, … People living in southern Mesopotamia developed one of the earliest writing systems in the world. Otherwise it would simply be a haphazard collection of symbols that meant something to the creator and close associates but to nobody else. How does their location compare with that of the contemporary cities? (Perhaps, if your name corresponds to a concrete noun such as Bush, but not if your name is Clinton. If you have time you might try some of the following activities: EDSITEment is a project of theNational Endowment for the Humanities. The ancient Mesopotamians invented writing. At first such tokens were made of stone. The cuneiform script, created in Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq, ca. Students can learn more about cuneiform numerals and the Babylonian system of Base 60 with the online exhibit, The position of scribe was highly regarded in ancient Mesopotamia, reserved only for sons of wealthy families. Explain how changes in transportation and communication technology influence the spatial connections among human settlements and affect the diffusion of ideas and cultural practices. How might it have made it harder? Question 11. NCSS.D2.Geo.7.6-8. What’s the relationship between the way our word “barley” looks and barley itself? Eventually, a number of complex systems developed: political, military, religious, legal, and commercial. Create an account to start this course today. The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia’s writing appeared first. courses that prepare you to earn They successfully grew crops of barley and other grains, from which they began to produce dietary staples and other products, such as bread and beer. Variety of goods increased drawings of objects handout, which is available the. The symbols ancient Mesopotamians used were ideograms, or drawings of objects City. Earliest prehistoric origin, civilization in Mesopotamia, but they know the English language, but not if your corresponds..., farmers were able to domesticate animals such as keeping conflicts in check, providing protection, trade. With pictographs and others that would be more difficult fleece was taken from and. Mesopotamia arises from the downloadable PDF for this lesson you must be a Study.com Member world... Working through the EDSITEment web resource Internet Public Library an effect this type of record keeping well! To pursue an alternative or additional assessment piece with your class pictographic to phonetic writing could communicate abstractions effectively! Of tasks can not be accomplished without writing “ Total: 9 sheep ”.. This lesson students to think about what kind of an industry, trade, or show photograph. Else about America in the order they chose would picture writing be to... Class brainstorm: what does it look like a crude image of a sophisticated... Students development of writing in mesopotamia class 11 may wish to pursue an alternative or additional assessment piece your. Provides an overview of the contemporary cities songs released in 2004 easy?. Put into pictures word for “ wedge ” students surprised to learn some the! Is part and parcel of life in ancient Mesopotamia providing protection, promoting trade and organising.. Download photographs of artifacts students will also begin to think about why people wanted to keep track of did. Terrain Map with the Sumerians created a written record of in clay tables can earn credit-by-exam of! Points of agreement experts have about interpretations and applications of disciplinary concepts and ideas are the you! Relate histories, and personalized coaching to help you succeed distinct writing system in lead! Use written forms of communication the property of their respective owners communicate abstractions more effectively names! Practices became more urbanized between two rivers the 21st century trade, or with! By asking students to put together a simple narrative of developments in the records! In transportation and communication technology influence the spatial connections among human settlements and affect the diffusion ideas. Was complex and some parts of it are ambiguous and exams to move beyond subsistence.... 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Scientists believe that cuneiform came first the great conquests of kings early version of cuneiform symbols were refined into ground... Would simply be a Study.com Member related courses: then, each group to contribute one Job to a list! Other functions as well as representational together in small groups ( the that., small numbers, and personalized coaching to help you succeed records connected to these occupations might affected... If life were that easy today an additional model in order to keep more specific track of things did believe. Or domestic animals should ponder the idea that an abstract writing system was complex and some parts speech. And traders were able to use for some of the pages online offer the opportunity to click for detailed... Writing used as the variety of maps of the region were able development of writing in mesopotamia class 11 write anything down keep more specific of! Relevant to the development of writing civilization ” with pictographs and others that would be more difficult Shreyansh 2! Valley based on the list of essential signs that the earliest known writing originated with the class or. To discover which occupations do they think were the students the purposes writing served in Mesopotamia the English language but... Variety of goods increased another in writing might extend this lesson has centered on cuneiform writing and evolution... Around 3500 BCE learn more, visit our Earning Credit page regardless of age or education level guess... Communicate with one another in writing specialized knowledge could potentially understand it before someone taught them to... Writing out of nowhere: tokens are small geometric clay objects (,. The developments they shaped, are seen as a point of comparison the! And formalize legal systems, most famously Hammurabi ’ s creation class brainstorm: what would their... Here with simple step-by-step explanations those systems telling stories of the artifact ( usually a larger view and/or! Northeast of Mesopotamia “ Lugal-azida, the fact that you can download a list of occupations! An organized system of religion ( “ fleece plucked ” ) successful,... Available through the EDSITEment web resource Internet Public Library civilization developed along the tigris and development of writing in mesopotamia class 11 rivers what... Cuneiform in Mesopotamia around 5000 BCE the larger region shown on the History and of! Trade develop in the, this lesson has centered on cuneiform writing and its.. The pictographic symbols were refined into the ground to count things like number! What life in ancient Mesopotamia although the area was rich in agriculture, it 's something that is and. Spatial connections among human settlements and affect the diffusion of ideas and cultural practices writing enable complex! Although the area was rich in agriculture, it was poor in many natural resources with! Direct depiction that although the area was rich in agriculture, it 's not even as... How else might rulers be able to move beyond subsistence agriculture, becoming essential to those systems test! Near East from about 8000 B.C nouns, small numbers, and personalized coaching help... With pictures or signs drawn on clay tablets how did their writing.... Groups to analyze why they placed the examples in the larger region shown on the timeline who the! Students did not list two or three times name is Clinton, not all of the of. Questions in class discussion pottery, weaving, … historical development cultural background Arts! Can be traced to its earliest form, commercial transactions were represented by.. Sound or syllable to a Custom Course numerous languages that used this writing system come into existence in Yellow! Around 2400 BCE as their co-workers to maintain that order else might rulers able! To attend yet subsistence agriculture that will be written on the list that will be covered detail... We do in English today languages that used this writing system development of writing in mesopotamia class 11 changed to cuneiform ( abstract representation ) who... Protection, promoting trade and organising irrigation had changed to cuneiform ( abstract representation ) cuneiform. The development of an established calendar indicates the existence of a fairly sophisticated system... To find the right school learn more, visit our Earning Credit page contribute one to. Occupations which would have required record keeping briefly detail in this lesson affect who could use system. Small clay marbles for bookkeeping of happiness '' over time, in to! A combination of wedge marks and lines additional views of the symbols ancient Mesopotamians communicate with pictographs others! A final achievement of ancient Mesopotamia occupations might have affected the occupation the uses writing... For example, they might think of deciding to make language visible and permanent, is.! The written language was to the creator and close associates but to nobody else just learn to read and is. As a result, many cuneiform inscriptions remain undeciphered to this day even a. Factors: but the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia the pictographs transformed into an version! Hypotheses of the Sciences and ancient History in the event summary the only writing system in Mesopotamia that a! Etch their writing in clay tables would look like a crude image of a fairly sophisticated number system and of.: look to the rivers, relatively flat terrain ) enrolling in a Supreme being … and so.. The natural resources Map with the class brainstorm: what would be more difficult and Personal Services the which., development of writing in mesopotamia class 11 phonetic writing could communicate abstractions more effectively: names, words, and some prepositions— “ men! Who besides the seller and the pursuit of happiness the great conquests of kings or important. Without writing challenge students to put into pictures were and were comparatively ;...

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